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Pande, G.N., Beer, G., & Williams, J.R., (1990), "Numerical Methods in Rock Mechanics", John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Duncan, J.M. (2000). Factors of safety and reliability in geotechnical engineering. J. Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, April, pp. 307-316.


Aitchison, GD. (1961). "Relationships of moisture stress and effective stress functions in unsaturated soils." Pore Pressure and Suction in Soils. Butterworths: London.

Bishop, A. W. (1959). "The principle of effective stress." Tecknish Ukeblad 106, 859-863.

Bolzon, G., Schrefler, B. A., & Zienkiewicz, O. C. (1996). "Elastoplastic soil constitutive laws generalized to partially saturated states." Géotechnique, 46(2), 279–289.

Brooks, R. and Corey, A. (1964). "Hydraulic properties of porous media." Hydrology Paper No. 3, Colorado State University.

Fredlund, D.G. and Rahardjo, H. (1993). "Soil Mechanics for Unsaturated Soils." John Wiley, New York.

Fredlund, D.G. and Xing, A. (1994). "Equations for the soil-water characteristic curve." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 31, 521-532.

Fredlund, D. G. (2000). "The 1999 R.M. Hardy Lecture: The implementation of unsaturated soil mechanics into geotechnical engineering." Can. Geotech. J. 37: 963–986.

Fredlund, D. G., Morgenstern, N. R. & Widger, R. A. (1978). "The shear strength of unsaturated soils." Can. Geotech. J. 15, No. 3, 313-321.

Gardner, W. (1956). "Mathematics of isothermal water conduction in unsaturated soils." Highway Research Board Special Report 40 International Symposium on Physico-Chemical Phenomenon in Soils, Washington D.C. pp. 78-87.

Gudehus, G. (1995), "A comprehensive concept for non-saturated granular bodies, in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Unsaturated Soils. "Paris, Balkema, Rotterdam.

Khalili, N.; Geiser, F.; Blight, G. E. (2004). "Effective Stress in Unsaturated Soils: Review with New Evidence." International Journal of Geomechanics, 4(2), 115–126. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1532-3641(2004)4:2(115).

Kohgo, Y., Nakano, M., & Miyazaki, T. (1993). "Theoretical aspects of constitutive modelling for unsaturated soils." Soils and Foundations, 33(4):49–63.

Skempton, A.W. (1954). "The pore pressure coefficients A and B". Geotechnique, 4(4), 143-147.

Vanapalli, S. K., Fredlund, D. G., Pufahl, D. E., & Clifton, A. W. (1996). "Model for the prediction of shear strength with respect to soil suction." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 33(3), 379–392.

van Genuchten, M. Th. (1980). "A closed form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils." Soil Science Society of America Journal 44, 892-898.

Material Properties

Duncan, J.M. and Chang, C.Y. (1970). Nonlinear analysis of stress and strain in soils. J. of Soil Mech. and Foundation Division, ASCE, 96 (SM5), pp.1629-1653.

Wong, K.S. and Broms, B.B. (1994). Analysis of retaining walls using the Hyperbolic Model. Soil-structure interaction numerical analysis and modeling, Ed. John W. Bull, E. and FN. SPON, London, UK, pp. 605-645.

Hoek, E., Carranza-Torres, C. and Corkum, B. (2002). Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion – 2002 Edition. 5th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium and 17th Tunneling Association of Canada Conference: NARMS-TAC, 2002, pp. 267-271.

Hoek, E. and Diederichs, M.S. (2006). Empirical estimation of rock mass modulus. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 43, 203–215.


Azami A., Yacoub T. & Curran J. (2012). Effects of strength anisotropy on the stability of slopes. 65th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, CGS Geo-Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Baecher, G.B., Lanney, N.A. and H.H. Einstein. (1978). Statistical Description of Rock Properties and Sampling. Proceedings of the 18th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics, 5C1-8.

Barton, N.R. (1972). A model study of rock-joint deformation, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol. 9, 579-602.

Barton, N.R. (1973). Review of a new shear strength criterion for rock joints. Engng Geol. 7, 287-332.

Barton, N.R. (1976). The shear strength of rock and rock joints. Int. J. Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr. 13(10), 1-24.

Barton, N.R. and Bandis, S.C. (1990). Review of predictive capabilities of JRC-JCS model in engineering practice. In Rock joints, proc. int. symp. on rock joints, Loen, Norway, (eds N. Barton and O. Stephansson), 603-610. Rotterdam: Balkema.

Barton, N.R. and Choubey, V. (1977). The shear strength of rock joints in theory and practice. Rock Mech. 10(1-2), 1-54.

Butler, R.F. (1992). Paleomagnetism: magnetic domains to geologic terranes (Chapter 6), Blackwell Science.

Dershowitz, W. (1985). Rock Joint Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

Fisher, R. (1953). Dispersion on a sphere. Proc. Royal Society London, A217, pp. 295-305.

Pande, G.N., Beer, G. and Williams, J.R. (1990). Numerical Methods in Rock Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Zienkiewicz, O.C. & Pande G.N. (1977). Time-dependent multilaminate model of rocks-A numerical study of deformation and failure of rock masses, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 1(3): 219–247.

Plain Strand Cable bolt model

Moosavi, M. (1997), "Load distribution along fully grouted cable bolts based on constitutive models obtained from modified Hoek cells". Ph.D. Thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Moosavi, M. , Bawden, W.F. and Hyett, A.J., (1996), "A comprehensive laboratory test programme to study the behaviour of modified geometry cable bolt support", Rock mechanics, tools and technics, Proceedings of the 2nd North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Montreal.

Hyett, A.J., Moosavi, M and Bawden, W.F., (1996), "Load distribution along fully grouted bolts, with emphasis on cable reinforcement", Int. J. of Num. & Anal. Meth. in Geomech. Vol 20, pp 517-544.

Hyett, A.J, Bawden, W.F., MacSporran, G.R., and Moosavi M., (1995), "A constitutive law for bond failure of fully grouted cable bolts using a modified Hoek cell", Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci. & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol 32, No.1, pp 11-36.

Interpolation Methods

Chugh, A.K. (1981). "Pore Water Pressure in Natural Slopes." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 5, 449 – 454, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Franke, Richard (1985). "Thin plate splines with tension." Computer Aided Geometric Design 2, 87 – 95, North-Holland.

Shepard, D. (1968). "A two dimensional interpolation function for irregularly spaced data." Proc. 23rd Nat. Conf. ACM, 517 524.


Owen, D.R.J. and Hinton, E. (1986). Finite elements in Plasticity theory and practice, Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Swansea, UK, Pineridge Press Limited, Swansea, UK. (Chapter 5.5).

Smith, I.M. and Griffiths, D.V., Programming the finite element method, Second ed., University of Manchester, UK, John Wiley and Sons, New York. (Chapter 4).


Esterhuizen, J., Filz, G.M. and Duncan, J.M. (2001). Constitutive Behaviour of Geosynthetic Interfaces, Journal of GeoTechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, October 2001, pp 834-840.

Forsman, J. and Slunga, E. (1994). The Interface Friction and Anchor Capacity of Synthetic Georeinforcements, Fifth International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Singapore.

Bolt Properties

Atlas Copco (2006), personal communication.

Tomory, P. (1997). Analysis of Split Set Bolt Performance, M.A.Sc. Thesis (Chapter 2), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Probabilistic Analysis

Iman, R.L., Davenport, J.M. and Zeigler, D.K. (1980). Latin Hypercube Sampling (a program user’s guide). Technical Report SAND 79-1473. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia Laboratories.

Law, A.M. and Kelton, D.W. (1991). Simulation Modeling and Analysis, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.

Rosenblueth, E. (1972), Point estimates for probability moments. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 10, 1972, pp 3812-3814.

Startzman, R.A. and Wattenbarger, R.A. (1985). An improved computation procedure for risk analysis problems with unusual probability functions. Proc. symp. Soc. Petrolm Engnrs, hydrocarbon economics and evaluation, Dallas.

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