# Design Standards

**Which design standards are supported in Slide2?**

Slide2 currently supports the Eurocode 7 (EC7) and British Standard (BS) 8006 design codes. The loading and resistance factors stipulated in the codes are automatically applied to the forces and material properties during the analysis of the factor of safety.

**Specifying a Design Standard**

To specify a design standard for analysis, go to **Project Settings > Design Standards**. Here you can select from a list of supported design standards along with their associated combinations of partial factors. The partial factors can be viewed by clicking **View Partial Factors**.

You can also define your own list of partial factors by clicking the Add button, and then selecting an existing standard as a base. These lists can also be imported and exported between Slide2 models.

**What are Partial Factors?**

In the Eurocode 7 and British Standard, factors must be applied to the loading and resistance components of the slip surface analysis. These factors serve to amplify the actions inducing the slope failure and/or reduce the capacity of resisting materials. Different factors are applied to different components of the analysis – hence the term “partial” is used to describe them.

**Important Note: **Depending on the standard, the factors can be multiplicative or divisive. If you are adding your own factors, be sure to review the standard that you are basing the set of factors from. Typically driving actions are multiplicative, while resisting actions are divisive. These are specified below for clarity:__Eurocode 7:__

Driving is Multiplicative (New value = Original Value x Factor):

- Permanent Actions (A)
- Variable Actions (A)
- Seismic

Resistance is Divisive (New value = Original Value / Factor):

- Material Parameters (M)
- Resistance (R)
- Anchorage (R)

__British Standards:__

Driving is Multiplicative (New value = Original Value x Factor):

- Soil Unit Mass
- External Dead Loads
- External Live Loads
- Seismic

Resistance is Divisive (New value = Original Value / Factor):

- Material Parameters
- Resistance
- Reinforcement

In some standards, separate factors are required depending on whether a particular force in the analysis is favourable or unfavourable with regards to preventing the slip surface from mobilizing.

A sample list of partial factors from the BS 8006: 2010 is provided below.

**Note: **The moment correction factor, λR;e, is a correction to the resisting moment unique to BS 8006:1995.

**Note:** For anchorage, the partial load factors can be overridden when defining** Support Properties**. See the section **Specifying Support Capacity** later in this document for more information.

**Specifying Applied Loads**

If a design standard as been specified in **Project Settings > Design Standards**, then the interface for adding **Distributed Loads **and **Point Loads** to the model will have an option to specify whether an applied load is **Variable** or **Permanent** (**Live** and **Dead**, respectively). Depending on the selection and, if applicable, whether the load is favourable or unfavourable to prevent sliding of the slip surface, Slide2 will automatically apply the appropriate partial factor(s) during the analysis.

**Single Source Assumption**

It is important to note that the distinguishing whether a load is “favourable” or “unfavourable” can sometimes be ambiguous. In particular, the weight of soil above the slip surface can be partitioned into unfavourable and a favourable regions, such as in the example below, where *Wf* is the favourable weight of soil and *Wu* is the unfavourable weight of soil. The slices to the right of the dashed line will instigate sliding while the slices to the left will react against sliding.

In such a case, it may be appropriate to use the “single source assumption”, which applies the unfavourable factor to the entire soil mass, regardless of location. Since the soil weight arises from a single source, it may not be appropriate or realistic to apply different factors to different portions of the same component or “source”. This assumption is discussed in Bond et al. (2013).

This single source assumption can be toggled during selection of a Design Standard via the “**Use a single factor for all slice weight actions**” checkbox. If the checkbox is toggled **ON**, Slide2 will assume the value of the unfavourable partial factor for Permanent Actions for ALL slices. If it is toggled **OFF,** then the dip direction of a slice will determine whether the weight of that slice is favourable or unfavourable.

**Factoring Soil Weight**

The weight of soil in a slice affects many of the terms in the calculation of factor of safety in a slip surface, which are often inter-dependent. These terms include the base normal and shear force for each slice, forces applied on anchors, and pore pressure. As such, there is ambiguity in some design standards with regards to whether the favourable or unfavourable factors of soil weight should be applied for each specific component of the analysis. Specifically, in Eurocode 7, there are two factors for soil weight: *γγ* which reduces the soil weight and *γG *which increases the soil weight.

In the Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM), soil weight has a transcendental relationship with the equilibrium forces used to solve for the factor of safety and thus cannot always be separated into terms which can specifically be designed as actions or resistances in the force balance equations. With exception to anchor calculations (described in the next paragraph), the weight of soil for a given slice is thus generally taken as a single value in Slide2. This means the same value of weight is used to calculate all contributions (base normal and shear forces, pore pressure, etc.) to the analysis. For this reason, *γγ* will be applied globally (i.e. directly to the input values in the Material Properties dialog). If the single source assumption is used, then this single value is the “unfavourable” factored value for every slice, even though a higher value of soil weight may increase the resisting frictional forces. If the single source assumption is not used, then the factor for each slice will depend the dip direction of its base.

For anchor calculations, by default, the factors for permanent applied loading (e.g. *γG* in EC7 and ffs for BS8006) are not considered during effective stress calculations as these unequivocally increase the effective stress and result in non-conservative anchor forces. However, this can be toggled by checking the “**Apply permanent loading factor when calculating effective stress for anchors**” checkbox, shown in the interface below. Note that as explained above, for Eurocode 7, the material resistance factor for unit weight, *γγ*, will always be applied to reduce the weight of soil above the anchor.

**Specifying Support Capacity**

When specifying support capacities in Slide2, there are a few different ways to define partial factors. The following image shows the interface that appears when defining **Support Properties (Properties > Define Support**). The Geosynthetic support type is currently selected and the **Design Factors** tab is shown. This tab can be used to check which factors are being considered for the analysis for each specific anchor type.

As shown in the next image, specifying **Manufacturer Library** dialog involves defining partial factors (RFcr, RFid, RFd, and Fr). These factors are used in place of the Design Standard factors, rather than multiplicatively.

Alternatively, the checkbox beside the “**Apply Custom Partial Factors**” can be used to replace the Design Standard factors for just the specific anchor being defined.

Note that for **RSPile** supports, the partial factors in this dialog are applied against the reactions calculated in RSPile in the following way:

- Factor for “Shear strength”: applied to the lateral reaction
- Factors for “Compressive strength” and “Tensile and Plate strength”: applied to the axial reaction, depending on whether the pile is in compression or tension.
- Factor for “Bond strength”: not available as an option.

### REFERENCES

Bond, A.J., Schuppener, B., Scarpelli, G. and Orr, T.L.L. (2013). *Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design Worked Examples. *[workshop presentation] Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, pp. 16-31.