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Vijayakumar, S., Cormack, D.E. (1987). Green’s functions for the biharmonic equation: bonded elastic media. SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 982-997.

Vijayakumar, S. (2005). New boundary element methods for solid mechanics: integration methodology and new Green's functions [Ph.D. thesis]. Toronto: University of Toronto.


Andrus, R., Stokoe, K. H. (1997), "Liquefaction Resistance Based on Shear Wave Velocity", Proceedings of NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils.

Boulanger, R. W., (2003a). "Relating Kα to relative state parameter index." J. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Eng., ASCE 129(8), 770–73.

Boulanger, R. W., and Idriss, I. M. (2004). "State normalization of penetration resistances and the effect of overburden stress on liquefaction resistance." Proc., 11th Intl. Conf. on Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, and 3rd Intl. Conf. on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Doolin et al., eds, Stallion Press, Vol. 2, pp. 484-491.

Cetin, K. O., and Bilge, H. T. (2012) “Performance-based assessment of magnitude (duration) scaling factors.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.,138(3), 324–334.

Cetin, K. O., Bilge, H. T.,Wu, J., Kammerer, A. M., and Seed, R. B. (2009). “Probabilistic models for cyclic straining of saturated clean sands.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 135(3), 371–386.

Cetin, K. O., Bilge, H. T.,Wu, J., Kammerer, A. M., and Seed, R. B. (2009). “Probabilistic Model for the Assessment of Cyclically Induced Reconsolidation (Volumetric) Settlements.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 135(3), 387–398.

Cetin K.O., Seed R.B., Der Kiureghian A., Tokimatsu K., Harder L.F. Jr, Kayen R.E., MossR.E.S. (2004), “SPT-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 130(12), 1314-1340.

Hynes, M. E., and Olsen, R. S. (1999), “Influence of confining stress on liquefaction resistance.” Proc., Int. Workshop on Phys. And Mech. Of Soil Liquefaction, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 145-152.

Idriss I. M., 1999, "An update to the Seed-Idriss simplified procedure for evaluating liquefaction potential in Proceedings, TRB Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction, Publication No. FHWA-RD-99-165, Federal Highway Administration, January.

I. M. Idriss and R. W. Boulanger, “"Estimating Kα for use in evaluating cyclic resistance of sloping ground." Proc. 8th US Japan Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifeline Facilities and Countermeasures against Liquefaction, Hamada, O’Rourke, and Bardet, eds., Report MCEER-03-0003, MCEER, SUNY Buffalo, N.Y., 2003, 449-468.

Idriss IM, Boulanger RW., Semi-empirical procedures for evaluating liquefaction potential during earthquakes. Proc., 11th International conference on soil dynamics and earthquake engineering, and 3rd International conference on earthquake geotechnical engineering, vol. 1. Stallion Press; 2004. p. 32–56.

Idriss, I. M., and Boulanger, R. W. (2008). Soil liquefaction during earthquakes. Monograph MNO-12, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA, 261 pp.

Ishihara, K. (1977), "Simple Method of Analysis for Liquefaction of Sand Deposits During Earthquakes", Soils and Foundations, Vol. 17, No. 3, September 1977, pp. 1-17.

Ishihara, K., Shimuzu, K., and Yamada, Y. (1981), “Pore Water Pressures Measured in Sand Deposits During an Earthquake”, Soils and Foundations, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 85-100.

Ishihara, K., and Yoshimine, M. _1992_. “Evaluation of settlements in sand deposits following liquefaction during earthquakes.” Soils Found., 32(1), 173–188.

JRA (1990) , Specification for Highway Bridges: Part V- Seismic Design. Japan Road Association, Tokyo.

Juang, C. H., Fang, S. Y., Khor, E. H. (2006) “First-Order Reliability Method for Probabilistic Liquefaction Triggering Analysis Using CPT”, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 132(3), 337-350.

Kayen, R. E, Mitchell, J. K., Seed, R. B.’ Lodge, A., Nishio, S., and Coutinho, R. (1992), "Evaluation of SPT-, CPT-, and shear wave-based methods for liquefaction potential assessment using Loma Prieta data", Proc., 4th Japan-U.S. Workshop on Earthquake-Resistant Des. Of Lifeline Fac. And Counterneasures for Soil Liquefaction, Vol. 1, 177-204.

Liao, S. S. C., Veneziano, D., Whitman, R.V. (1988), "Regression Models for Evaluating Liquefaction Probability", Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 114, No. 4, pp. 389-409.

Liao, S.S.C. and Whitman, R.V. (1986a). "Overburden Correction Factors for SPT in Sand" Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 112, No. 3, p. 373 - 377.

Liao, S.S.C. and Whitman, R.V. (1986b). "Catalogue of A Liquefaction and Non-Liquefaction Occurrences During Earthquakes" Research Report, Dept. of Civil Engineering, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA.

Meyerhof, G. G., 1957. Discussion on research on determining the density of sands by spoon penetration testing, in Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, London, Vol. 3, p.110.

Moss, R. S. E, Seed, R. B., KAyen, R. E., Stewart, J. P., Der Kiureghian A., Cetin, K. O. (2006) “CPT-Based Probabilistic and Deterministic Assessment of In Situ Seismic Soil Liquefaction Potential”, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 132(8), 1032-1051.

NCEER, 1997, "Proceedings of the NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils", Edited by Youd, T. L., Idriss, I. M., Technical Report No. NCEER-97-0022, December 31, 1997.

Peck, R B Hanson, W E & Thornburn, T H (1974) Foundation engineering Pub: John Wiley, New York

Pradel, D., (1998), "Procedure to Evaluate Earthquake-Induced Settlements in Dry Sandy Soils", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 124. No. 4 pp. 364-368.

Robertson, P. K., Shao, Lisheng.,(2010) "Estimation of Seismic Compression in Dry Soils Using the CPT", International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics. 18.

Robertson, P. K., Wride (Fear), C. E.,(1998) “Evaluating cyclic liquefaction potential using the cone penetration test”, Can. Geotech. J. 35: 442–459 (1998).

Seed, H. B., Idriss, I. M. (1971), “Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Soil Liquefaction Potential”, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No SM9, Proc. Paper 8371, September 1971, pp. 1249-1273.

Seed, H. B., Idriss, I. M. (1982), "Ground Motions and Soil Liquefaction During

Earthquakes", Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Monograph Series.

Seed, H. B., Idriss, I. M., Arango, I. (1983), "Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential Using Field Performance Data", Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 109, No. 3, pp. 458-482.

Seed, H. B., Tokimatsu, K., Harder, L. F., Chung, R. M. (1984), "The Influence of SPT Procedures in Soil Liquefaction Resistance Evaluations", Earthquake Engineering Research Center Report No. UCB/EERC-84/15, University of California at Berkeley, October, 1984.

Shamoto, Y., Zhang, J., and Tokimatsu, K. (1998). “New charts for predicting large residual post-liquefaction ground deformation.” Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 17_7–8_, 427–438.

Skempton, A.W. 1986. Standard penetration test procedures and the effects in sands of overburden pressure, relative density, particle size, ageing and overconsolidation. Geotechnique 36(3): 425-447.

Tokimatsu, K., and Seed, H. B. _1984_. “Simplified procedures of the evaluation of settlements in clean sands.” Rep. No. UCB/GT-84/16, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif.

Tokimatsu, K., and Seed, H. B., 1987. Evaluation of settlements in sands due to earthquake shaking, J. Geotechnical Eng., ASCE 113 (GT8), 861-78.

Wu, J., Seed, R. B., and Pestana, J. M. (2003). “Liquefaction triggering and post liquefaction deformations of Monterey 030 sand under unidirectional cyclic simple shear loading.” Geotechnical Engineering Research Rep. No. UCB/GE-2003/01, Univ. of California, Berkeley,Calif.

Youd, T. L., Hansen, C. M., and Bartlett, S. F., 2002. Revised Multilinear regression equations for prediction of lateral spread displacement, J. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Eng. 128(12),1007-017.

Youd, T. L., Idriss, I. M., Andrus, R. D., Arango, I., Castro, G., Christian, J. T., Dobry, E., Finn, W. D. L., Harder Jr., L. F., Hynes, M. E., Ishihara, K., Koester, J. 169 P., Liao, S. S. C., Marcusson III, W. F., Martin, G. R., Mtchell, J. K., Moriwaki, Y., Power, M. S., Robertson, P. K., Seed, R. B., and Stokoe II, K. H. (2001). “Liquefaction resistance of soils: Summary report from the 1966 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF workshops on evaluation of liquefaction resistance of soils” J. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Eng., 124(10), 817-833.

Youd, T. L., Noble, S. K. (1997), "Liquefaction Criteria Based on Statistical and Probabilistic Analyses", Proceedings of the NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils, December 31, 1997, pp. 201-205.

G. Zhang; P. K. Robertson, M.ASCE; and R. W. I. Brachman (2004).“Estimating Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Displacements Using the Standard Penetration Test or Cone Penetration Test, J. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Eng. 130(8), 861-871.

Interpolation Methods

Chugh, A.K (1981). "Pore Water Pressure in Natural Slopes." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 5, 449 – 454, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Franke, Richard (1985). "Thin plate splines with tension." Computer Aided Geometric Design 2, 87 – 95, North-Holland.

Shepard, D. (1968). "A two dimensional interpolation function for irregularly spaced data." Proc. 23rd Nat. Conf. ACM, 517 524.

CPT Analysis

Ching, J., Huang, W.H., and Phoon, K.K. (2020). 3D probabilistic site characterization by sparse Bayesian learning. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 146(12), 04020134.

Ching, Jianye & Zhiyong, Yang & Phoon, Kok-Kwang. (2021). Dealing with Nonlattice Data in Three-Dimensional Probabilistic Site Characterization. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 147. 06021003.10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0001907.

Ching, J., Yoshida, I., and Phoon, K.K. (2023). Comparison of trend models for geotechnical spatial variability: Sparse Bayesian Learning vs. Gaussian Process Regression. Gondwana Research, 123, 174-183.

Davies, M.P., Piezocone Technology for the Geoenvironmental Characterization of Mine Tailings. PhD Thesis. 1999.

Guide to Cone Penetration Testing, 6th Edition, 2015

Jefferies, M.G., and Davies, M.P., 1993. Use of CPTU to estimate equivalent SPT N60. Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 16(4): 458-468.

Kulhawy, F.H. and Mayne, P.W. 1990. Manual on estimating soil properties for foundation design. Report EPRI EL-6800, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, 306pp.

Mayne, PW (2006). In situ test calibrations for evaluating soil parameters. Proc., Characterization and Engineering Properties of Natural Soils II, Singapore.

Robertson, P.K., 2009a. Interpretation of cone penetration tests – a unified approach. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 46:1337-1355.

Robertson, P.K., and Campanella, R.G., 1983a. Interpretation of cone penetration tests – Part I (sand). Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 20(4): 718-733.

Robertson, P.K., and Campanella, R.G. 1983b. Interpretation of cone penetration tests – Part II (clay). Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 20(4): 734-745.

Schneider, James A. 2009. Separating influences of yield stress ratio (YSR) and partial drainage on piezocone response. Australian Geomechanics. 44(3).

Yoshida, I., Tomizawa, Y., and Otake, Y. (2021). Estimation of trend and random components of conditional random field using Gaussian process regression. Computers and Geotechnics, 136, 104179.

Undrained Shear Strength

Ladd, Charles, C. 1991. Stability Evaluation during Staged Construction. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. 117(4): 540-615.

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