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Constant Field Stress

Use the Constant Field Stress option if you wish to specify an initial in-situ stress field (prior to excavation) which is constant, and does not vary with depth. Only the direction and magnitude of the principal stresses need to be defined.

  • See the Field Stress topic for general information about using the Field Stress option in UnWedge.

Principal Stress Magnitudes

Sigma 1, Sigma 2, and Sigma 3 are the major, intermediate and minor principal stresses respectively.

By definition:

  • The Magnitude of Sigma 1 >= Sigma 2 >= Sigma 3
  • If Sigma 1 = Sigma 3 then this represents hydrostatic stress conditions (equal stress in all directions)

Principal Stress Orientation

By definition:

  • The orientations of Sigma 1, 2, 3 are orthogonal to each other, therefore the Trend / Plunge of Sigma 1 and Sigma 3 must be defined accordingly.
  • The orientation of Sigma 2 cannot be independently specified because Sigma 2 is orthogonal to BOTH Sigma 1 and Sigma 3.
Because UnWedge uses a Complete Plane Strain formulation, this means that the principal stress orientations do not have to be aligned with the excavation axis. Although the excavation model is 2-dimensional, the defined Field Stress (and the stress analysis results) can be 3-dimensional.
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