# Pile Types

The **Define Pile Types** option is available through **Piles > Pile Types** menu or by clicking on the **Define Pile Types** icon in the toolbar.

Pile Types are made up of Pile Sections whose properties are defined in the Pile Section Properties dialog.

The properties and options available for a pile type are dependent on the analysis option selected, as is explained in the table below.

RSPile | Pile Section Properties | Pile Type | ||||

Analysis | Cross-Section | Material Type | Material Properties | Multiple Sections | Bell Section* | Tapered Section |

Driven | Pipe Pipe Closed End | Not Applicable | Not Required |
| NO | YES |

Pile Pipe Open End | YES | NO | YES | |||

Timber | YES | NO | YES | |||

Concrete Pile | YES | NO | YES | |||

H Pile | YES | NO | NO | |||

Bored | Circular | Concrete | Concrete strength | YES | YES | NO |

Square | YES | NO | NO | |||

Rectangular | YES | NO | NO | |||

Axial/Lateral | Circular | Elastic | Modulus | YES | YES | YES |

Rectangular | YES | NO | YES | |||

Pipe | YES | NO | YES | |||

Typical Section | YES | NO | NO | |||

User-Defined | YES | NO | NO | |||

Circular | Plastic | Modulus Mxy Mxz | YES | YES | YES | |

Rectangular | YES | NO | YES | |||

Pipe | YES | NO | YES | |||

Circular | Reinforced Concrete | Concrete strength | YES | YES | NO | |

Rectangular | YES | NO | NO | |||

Circular | Prestressed Concrete | Concrete strength | YES | NO | NO | |

Rectangular | YES | NO | NO |

#### Notes:

- Group analysis has the same Pile Type features as Lateral/Axial analysis
- *Bell Section cannot exist by itself and can only be added as the bottom-most section
- Skin friction is ignored along a Bell Section
- P-Y and Q-Z curves of a bell section are obtained using the actual bell dimensions
- The structural stiffness of a bell section is calculated using the stem diameter
- The bell obtains its properties from the section immediately above it including any reinforcement design

The Edit Pile Types dialog is separated into two sections which are explained below:

**Sections****Orientation**

## Pile Sections

The Section tab allows users to construct a Pile Type using Pile Sections. In this tab users can define the:

- Pile Head Elevation
- Cross Section Type
- Number of Sections
- Length of each Section
- Bell geometry and tapering

### BELLS

Depending on the type of analysis being done, a bell can be added and defined using the **Design Bell** option.

In this dialog users can define:

- Length Above Bell
- Bell Angle
- Bell Base Thickness
- Base Diameter

**When adding a bell it should be noted:**

- Bell Sections cannot exist by themselves and can only be added as the bottom-most section of the pile type
- Skin friction is ignored along a Bell Section
- P-Y and Q-Z curves of a bell section are obtained using the actual bell dimensions
- The structural stiffness of a bell section is calculated using the stem diameter
- The bell obtains its properties from the section immediately above it including any reinforcement design

#### Assumptions for different analysis options

Certain assumptions are made for each type of analysis when a bell is added to a pile type:

**Lateral**

- Skin friction is ignored along a bell section
- P-Y curves along a bell section are obtained using the interpolated bell diameter

**Axial**

- T-Z is ignored along a bell section
- Q-Z is obtained using the bell base diameter
- The structural stiffness of a bell section is computed using the stem diameter

**Bored Analysis**

- Skin friction is ignored along a bell section
- Pile capacity along a bell section is obtained using the interpolated bell diameter

## Orientation

The orientation inputs are used to specify the pile batter and orientation in 3D space. Two options are available:

- Alpha/Beta
- Alpha - Rotation of pile around z-axis, clockwise from the y-axis
- Beta - Batter angle of pile, clockwise from y-axis
- Theta - Rotation of pile around the central axis of the pile

From left: alpha, beta, theta

- Vector
- XYZ - Direction vector coordinates. The normalized unit vector of the input vector is calculated.
- Rotation Angle - the angle of rotation (clockwise, in degrees) of the pile section about the z-axis. (0 degrees if no rotation).

#### Notes on Ground Slope and Pile Batter

- Ground Slope and Pile Batter are only one of the options for defining a battered pile / sloping ground. T-z and Q-z multipliers can be used to analyze axially loaded (battered) piles in sloping ground. Similarly, p-y multipliers are more commonly used to analyze laterally loaded (battered) piles in sloping ground.