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Rocscience Coefficient of Restitution Table in RocFall

RN ( Normal )RT ( Tangential )TypeVerificationLocationReference
MinMaxMeanStandard
Deviation
MinMaxMeanStandard
Deviation
0.3700.4200.8700.920Hard surface pavingTested using simulated
rockfalls of similar size and shape of a previous rockfall.
Glenwood Canyon, Colorado, USAPfeiffer, T.J., and Bowen, T.D., "Computer Simulation of Rockfalls." Bulletin of Association of Engineering Geologists. Vol. 26, No. 1. 1989. pp135-146
0.3300.3700.8300.870Bedrock or boulders with little soil
or vegetation
0.3000.3300.8300.870Talus with little vegetation
0.3000.3300.8000.830Talus with some vegetation
0.2800.3200.8000.830Soft soil slope with little
vegetation
0.2800.3200.7800.820Vegetated soil slope
0.3150.0640.7120.116Limestone faceTested on restoration-blasting slopes made of four types of materials; blast-generated rock fragments, partially vegetated scree on berms, uncovered blast piles, and vegetated quarry waste.Limestone quarry in EnglandRobotham, M.E., and Wang, H., and Walton, G., "Assessment of risk from rockfall from active and abandoned quarry slopes." Institution of mining and Metallurgy, Section A. 1995.104(Jan-April), pp A25-A33
0.3030.0800.6150.170Partially vegetated limestone
scree
0.3150.0640.7120.116Uncovered limestone blast pile
0.2510.0290.4890.141Vegetated covered limestone pile
0.2760.0790.8350.087Chalk faceChalk quarry in England
0.2710.0180.5960.085Vegetated chalk scree
0.3840.1330.6870.130Wood platform slope at 45 degrees was used as a control for the field tests they did.Tested as control parametersWestern North Carolina for
Interstate 40.
Wu, Shie-Shin "Rockfall evaluation by computer
simulation" Transportation Research Records.
Vol. 1031 pp 1-5, 1985.
0.2000.530Dolomitic limestone boulders on rocky surfaces and on talus despositsConsisted of hand made throws and free fall tests by fragmentation of rock using explosives, of dolomitic limestone boulders on rocky surfaces and on talus deposit of the landslide fans. Also used back-analysis, and information from Urciuoli.Atrani, Campania, Southern ItalyBudetta, P., and Santo, A. "Morphostructural evolution and related kinematics of rockfalls in Campania(southern Italy)." Engineering Geology. Vol.36 pp197-210.
0.1000.200Remolded pyroclastic from the terraces situated at the base of the cliff
0.0000.240Impacts on detritus of the fans present at the foot of a rock cliff
0.3930.567SoilTested by dropping 3 to 5 cm cuboid and angular granite rock fragments onto slopesHong KongChau, K.T., and Wong, R.H.C., and Lee, C.F.
"Rockfall Problems in Hong Kong and some new
experimental results for coefficients of Restitution"
International Journal of rock mechanics and
mining sciences and geomechanics.
Vol. 35, Section 4-5. 1996. pp662-663
0.4530.737Shotcrete
0.4870.910Rock slope
0.5000.950BedrockReferenced from tests carried out by Barbieri et al.Italcementi works at Castellammare
di Stabia(northern slope of the Sorrentine Peninsula), and the area of Atrani.
Giani, G.P. "Rock Slope Stability Analysis"
Rotterdam, Balkema 1992.
0.3500.850Bedrock covered by large blocks
0.3000.700Debris formed by uniform
distributed elements
0.2500.550Soil covered by vegetation
0.5300.990Clean hard bedrockHoek, Evert. "Unpublished notes" NSERC Industrial Research Professor of Rock Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, St George Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A4
0.4000.900Asphalt roadway
0.3500.850Bedrock outcrops with hard surface, large boulders
0.3200.820Talus cover
0.3200.800Talus cover with vegetation
0.3000.800Soft soil, some vegetation
0.3700.420Smooth hard surfaces and pavingDeveloped by observation and literature reviewColordado, USAPfeiffer, T.J., and Higgens, J.D., "Rockfall Hazard Analysis Using the Colorado Rockfall Simulation." Transportation Research Record 1288, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1990, pp117-126.
0.3300.370Most bedrock and boulder fields
0.3000.330Talus and firm soil slopes
0.2800.300Soft soil slopes
0.8700.920Smooth hard surfaces such as
pavement or smooth bedrock surfaces
0.8300.870Most bedrock surfaces and talus with no vegetation
0.8200.850Most talus slopes with some low
vegetation
0.8000.830Vegetated talus slopes and soil slopes with spares vegetation
0.7800.820Brush covered soil slope
0.5300.0400.9900.040Clean Hard Bedrocka) rolled many rocks down the slope to verify used values b) comparison to historical rockfall events at siteMountain road, near Bolzano, Sothtyrol, Italyfeedback from user of RocFall version 3
0.3500.0400.8500.040Bedrock outkrop
0.3200.0400.8200.040Talus cover
0.3200.0400.8000.040Talus with vegetation
0.4000.0400.9000.040Asphalt paving
0.5300.0400.9900.040Clean Hard Bedrockdefault program values used170m deep open pit, Tasmania, Australia (overall pit angle between 55 and 65 degrees)feedback from user of RocFall version 3
0.3500.0400.8500.040Bedrock outcrop
0.4800.1900.5300.170Concreteinverse calculation of paths - standard deviations seemed to largeTakamatsu, Japanfeedback from user of RocFall version 3
0.4700.3000.5500.230Weathered Rock
0.4800.0000.5300.000Concreteinverse calculation of paths, roughness of 7.9 degrees for concrete, 9.3 for rock
0.4700.0000.5500.000Weathered Rock
0.8500.0000.5300.000Concreteinverse calculation of paths
1.0000.0000.5500.000Weathered Rock
0.5300.0400.9900.040BedrockEstimation, block diameters 10 to 30 cmFjord valley, State of Sogn og Fjordane, Norwayfeedback from user of RocFall version 3
0.5000.0600.7000.060Blockfield
0.5000.0600.6500.060Blockfield with bushes and small
trees
0.5000.0600.5000.060Blockfield with forest
0.3000.0600.8000.060Top-soil with vegetation
0.4000.0400.9000.040Asphalt paving
0.3500.0400.8500.040Gravel road
0.5000.800Sparsely forested slope is covered by a veneer of very fine weathered talus derived from weak shistose units underlying the limestone cap.Calculated from historic rockfallSunnybrae, (interior of )British Colombia, CanadaHungr, O. and Evans, S.G. 1988. Engineering evaluation of fragmental rockfall hazards. Proc. 5th International Symposium on Landslides, Lusanne. July 1988, Vol. 1, pp. 685-690.
0.5000.800Limestone on bare uniform talus slope formed of basalt fragments with a modal size of 5 cm.Calculated from historic rockfallHedley, (southern interior of ) British Colombia, Canada
0.7000.900rectangular bolder of metamorphosed tuff on bare rock and a steep snow covered shelf.Calculated from historic rockfallSquamish Highway, north of Vancouver British Colombia, Canada
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