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Pile Types

The Define Pile Types option is available through Piles > Pile Types menu or by clicking on the Define Pile Types icon in the toolbar.

Edit Pile Type dialog

Pile Types are made up of Pile Sections whose properties are defined in the Pile Section Properties dialog.

The properties and options available for a pile type are dependent on the analysis option selected, as is explained the table below.

RSPilePile Section PropertiesPile Type
AnalysisCross-SectionMaterial TypeMaterial PropertiesMultiple SectionsBell Section*Tapered Section
DrivePipe Pipe Closed EndNot ApplicableNot RequiredNONOYES
Pile Pipe Open EndNONOYES
TimberNONOYES
Concrete PileNONOYES
H PileNONOYES
BoredCircularConcreteConcrete strengthYESYESNO
SquareYESNONO
RectangularYESNONO
Axial/LateralCircularElasticModulusYESYESYES
RectangularYESNONO
PipeYESNOYES
Typical SectionYESNONO
User DefinedYESNONO
CircularPlasticModulus Mxy MxzYESYESYES
RectangularYESNONO
PipeYESNOYES
CircularReinforced ConcreteConcrete strengthYESYESNO
RectangularYESNONO
CircularPrestressed ConcreteConcrete strengthYESNONO
RectangularYESNONO

The Edit Pile Types dialog is separated into two sections which are explained below:

  • Sections
  • Orientation

Pile Sections

The Section tab allows users to construct a Pile Type using Pile Sections. In this tab users can define the:

  • Pile Head Elevation
  • Cross Section Type
  • Number of Sections
  • Length of each Section
  • Bell geometry and tapering

BELLS

Depending on the type of analysis being done, a bell can be added and defined using the Design Bell option.

Edit Bell Dialog

In this dialog users can define:

  • Length Above Bell
  • Bell Angle
  • Bell Base Thickness
  • Base Diameter

When adding a bell it should be noted:

  • Bell Sections cannot exist by themselves and can only be added as the bottom most section of the pile type
  • Skin friction is ignored along a Bell Section
  • P-Y and Q-Z curves of a bell section are obtained using the actual bell dimensions
  • The structural stiffness of a bell section is calculated using the stem diameter
  • The bell obtains its properties from the section immediately above it including any reinforcement design

Assumptions for different analysis options

Certain assumptions are made for each type of analysis when a bell is added to a pile type:

Lateral

  • Skin friction is ignored along a bell section
  • P-Y curves along a bell section are obtained using the interpolated bell diameter

Axial

  • T-Z is ignored along a bell section
  • Q-Z is obtained using the bell base diameter
  • The structural stiffness of a bell section is computed using the stem diameter

Bored Analysis

  • Skin friction is ignored along a bell section
  • Pile capacity along a bell section are obtained using the interpolated bell diameter

Orientation

The orientation inputs are used to specify the pile batter and orientation in 3D space. Two options are available:

  • Alpha/Beta
    • Alpha - Rotation of pile around z-axis, clockwise from the y-axis
    • Beta - Batter angle of pile, clockwise from y axis
    • Theta - Rotation of pile around the central axis of the pile

Orientation Inputs in 3D Space

From left: alpha, beta, theta

  • Vector
    • XYZ - Direction vector coordinates. The normalized unit vector of the input vector is calculated.
    • Rotation Angle - angle of rotation (clock-wise, in degrees) of the pile section about the z-axis. (0 degrees if no rotation).

Notes on Ground Slope and Pile Batter

  • Ground Slope and Pile Batter are only one of the options for defining a battered pile / sloping ground. T-z and Q-z multipliers can be used to analyze axially loaded (battered) piles in sloping ground. Similarly, p-y multipliers are more commonly used to analyze laterally loaded (battered) piles in sloping ground.


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