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Orientation

Global Orientation Format

The Global Orientation Format in the Project Settings dialog determines how Dips will interpret the two orientation columns in the data file (i.e., the first two mandatory columns of your file). There are four possible choices:

  • DIP / DIP DIRECTION 00;000 (planar feature)
  • STRIKE (Right) / DIP 000;00 (planar feature, right hand rule for strike)
  • STRIKE (Left) / DIP 000;00 (planar feature, left hand rule for strike)
  • TREND / PLUNGE 000;00 (use this for linear measurements or for pole vectors of planes)

The Global Orientation Format determines the format of all data units in the file, with the following important exceptions:

  1. If the data is assigned to a Traverse which uses oriented core (i.e., Linear BH Oriented Core or Curved BH Oriented Core). In these cases, the orientation format is Alpha / Beta, whihc are angles measured relative to the reference line of the borehole.
  2. If the Traverse Data Format option has been used to indicate a different orientation format for a given Traverse. In this case, the orientation format is the Data Format specified for that particular Traverse in the Traverse Information dialog.

NOTE:

  • For STRIKE and DIP, the "handedness" (right hand rule or left hand rule) can be interpreted as follows: hold the specified hand flat, with the palm down and the thumb extended at 90 degrees to your fingers. When your fingers point down DIP, your thumb will indicate the direction of STRIKE.
  • Changing the Global Orientation Format AFTER data has been entered in the spreadsheet, will not convert the data in the orientation columns. If you wish to save data in a different orientation format, use the Save Processed file option.
  • Plane orientations cannot be entered in Dips using bearing notation (e.g., N15E/65E). You must use either STRIKE / DIP (right-hand rule) or STRIKE / DIP (left hand rule) or DIP / DIPDIRECTION formats for entering plane orientations. STRIKE is always measured from North.

RIGHT-HAND RULE IN DIPS

For STRIKE and DIP, the “handedness” (right hand rule or left hand rule) can be interpreted as follows: hold the specified hand flat, with the palm down and the thumb extended at 90 degrees to your fingers. When your fingers point down DIP, your thumb will indicate the direction of STRIKE.

This corresponds to the American right-hand rule (although the wording is different).

The British right hand rule corresponds to the STRIKE / DIP (left hand rule) in Dips.

NOTE: The default Global Orientation Format for a new file is DIP / DIPDIRECTION. If your data is STRIKE / DIP, or TREND /PLUNGE format, you will have to change this in the Project Settings dialog.

Declination

The Declination in the Project Settings dialog can be used for azimuth correction. This is typically used to correct for magnetic declination, but can be used to adjust to grid north.

If you have already adjusted your measurements with your compass, then leave the default value of 0 (zero) Declination, since additional correction is not required.

NOTE:

The Declination is ADDED to all azimuth values, so use:

  • a POSITIVE value to correct for EAST declination
  • a NEGATIVE value to correct for WEST declination

For example, a Declination of –7 indicates a declination of 7 degrees WEST

The figures below illustrate the definition of east and west declination. Note that the east/west terminology refers to the offset of the original (unadjusted) azimuth, WITH RESPECT TO the final (adjusted) azimuth (i.e., either true north or grid north).

Example of EAST declination (enter declination as POSITIVE value)

East declination

Example of WEST declination (enter declination as NEGATIVE value)

West declination

NOTE: In any case, always remember that the declination value you enter in Project Settings is ADDED to all azimuth values. So enter the declination value accordingly (positive or negative) to achieve the desired correction to true north or grid north.

DECLINATION FOR BOREHOLE TRAVERSE TYPE

If you are using Borehole Traverses, and if borehole trends (azimuths) are taken from grid north, you must use ZERO Declination. The Declination, if non-zero, will be applied to the borehole trends (azimuths). This is the Orient 3 value in the Traverse Information dialog.

Declination for Clinorule Traverse Type

If you are using Clinorule Traverses, and if clinorule drift orientations (reference lines) are taken from grid north, you must use ZERO Declination.

DECLINATION FOR KINEMATIC ANALYSIS SLOPE DIRECTION

When you define the Slope Dip Direction for a Kinematic Analysis, by default the Declination (entered in Project Settings) is NOT applied to the Slope Dip Direction (entered for the Kinematic Analysis).

  • If you wish to enter uncorrected values of Slope Dip Direction, then you must select the Declination declination button beside the Slope Dip Direction edit box to apply the azimuth correction. If the Declination declination button is toggled on, then the Declination value (entered in Project Settings) will be applied to the Slope Dip Direction used for Kinematic Analysis.
  • If you have already manually applied the azimuth correction for Slope Dip Direction, then do not select the Declination declination button.

NOTE: When you apply the Declination declination, the value of Slope Dip Direction you enter in the edit box, will not change. The correction will be applied to the Kinematic Analysis results, but the input value will remain the same

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