Abramson, L.W., Lee, T.S., Sharma, S. and Boyce, G.M. (2001). Slope Stability and Stabilization Methods, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons.

Ching, R.K.H. and Fredlund, D.G. (1983). "Some difficulties associated with the limit equilibrium method of slices." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol.20. pp. 661-672.

Duncan, J.M. and Wright, S.G. (2005). Soil Strength and Slope Stability, John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Whitman, R.V. and Bailey, W.A. (1967). "Use of computers for slope stability analysis". ASCE, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering Division, 93, pp. 519-542.

Analysis Methods

Sarma, S.K. (1973). "Stability analysis of embankments and slopes". Géotechnique 23 (3): 423-433.

Sarma, S.K. (1979). “Stability Analysis of Embankments and Slopes”. J. Geotech. Eng. Div. ASCE 105, No. 12, pp. 1511-1524.

Search Methods

Greco, V.R. (1996). "Efficient Monte Carlo Technique for Locating Critical Slip Surface." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 122, No. 7, July 1996.

Husein Malkawi, A.I., Hassan, W.F., and Sarma, S.K. (2001). "Global Search Method for Locating General Slip Surface using Monte Carlo Techniques." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, August 2001.


Brooks, R. and Corey, A. (1964). "Hydraulic properties of porous media." Hydrology Paper No. 3, Colorado State University.

Fredlund, D.G. and Rahardjo, H. (1993). "Soil Mechanics for Unsaturated Soils." John Wiley, New York.

Fredlund, D.G. and Xing, A. (1994). "Equations for the soil-water characteristic curve." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 31, 521-532.

Fredlund, D. G. (2000). "The 1999 R.M. Hardy Lecture: The implementation of unsaturated soil mechanics into geotechnical engineering." Can. Geotech. J. 37: 963–986.

Gardner, W. (1956). "Mathematics of isothermal water conduction in unsaturated soils." Highway Research Board Special Report 40 International Symposium on Physico-Chemical Phenomenon in Soils, Washington D.C. pp. 78-87.

Skempton, A.W. (1954). "The pore pressure coefficients A and B". Geotechnique, 4(4), 143-147.

van Genuchten, M. Th. (1980). "A closed form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils." Soil Science Society of America Journal 44, 892-898.

Strength Models

Barton, N.R. and Choubey, V. (1977). The shear strength of rock joints in theory and practice. Rock Mech. 10(1-2), 1-54.

Esterhuizen, J., Filz, G.M. and Duncan, J.M. (2001). Constitutive Behaviour of Geosynthetic Interfaces, Journal of GeoTechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, October 2001, pp 834-840.

Hoek, E. and Bray, J.W. (1981). Rock Slope Engineering, Revised 3rd edition, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London.

Hoek, E., Carranza-Torres, C. and Corkum, B. (2002). "Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion – 2002 Edition", NARMS 2002.

Ladd, C.C. and Foote, R. (1974). A new design procedure for stability of soft clays. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division. ASCE, Vol. 100, No. GT7. pp. 763-786.

Miller, S.M. (1988). "Modeling Shear Strength at Low Normal Stresses for Enhanced Rock Slope Engineering", Proc. Of 39th Highway Geology Symp, 346-356.

Snowden (2007), “Proposal for Additional Features in SLIDE and SWEDGE”, unpublished memorandum to Rocscience, 5th April 2007.

Snowden (2011), "Snowden Modified Anisotropic Linear strength model", unpublished memorandum to Rocscience, November 2011.


Esterhuizen, J., Filz, G.M. and Duncan, J.M. (2001). Constitutive Behaviour of Geosynthetic Interfaces, Journal of GeoTechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, October 2001, pp 834-840.

Forsman, J. and Slunga, E. (1994). The Interface Friction and Anchor Capacity of Synthetic Georeinforcements, Fifth International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Singapore, September 1994.

Ito, T., & Matsui, T. (1975). Methods to estimate lateral force acting on stabilizing piles. Soils and foundations15(4), 43-59.

Jewell, R.A. (1996). Soil Reinforcement With Geotextiles, Special Publication 123, Construction Industry Research and Information Association, London.


Duncan, J.M. (2000). "Factors of safety and reliability in geotechnical engineering." J. Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, April, pp. 307-316.

Law, A.M. and Kelton, D.W. (1991). "Simulation Modeling and Analysis", 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.

Saucier, Richard (2000). "Computer Generation of Statistical Distributions." Army Research Laboratory, paper ARL-TR-2168.

Interpolation Methods

Bailey, Trevor and Gatrell, Anthony (1995). “Ordinary Kriging.” Interactive spatial data analysis. Longman Scientific & Technical, New York, Ch.5.5.

Chugh, A.K. (1981). "Pore Water Pressure in Natural Slopes." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 5, 449 – 454, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Franke, Richard (1985). "Thin plate splines with tension." Computer Aided Geometric Design 2, 87 – 95, North-Holland.

Shepard, D. (1968). "A two dimensional interpolation function for irregularly spaced data." Proc. 23rd Nat. Conf. ACM, 517 524.

Seismic Analysis

Jibson, R.W., Rathje, E.M., Jibson, M.W., and Lee, Y.W. (2013). SLAMMER—Seismic LAndslide Movement Modeled using Earthquake Records (ver.1.1, November 2014): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 12, chap. B1, unpaged.